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Jack had heard rumors that the treasure was cursed, but luckily for him, Hector Barbossa and his crew marooned him before he could take his share of the gold.

Upon first hearing about the curse from Jack, the crew ended up not believing in the curse, with Barbossa himself having said, "Ridiculous superstition!

There, they found the stone chest and summarily stole all pieces of the Aztec gold , an act which the crew would later regret. Captain Barbossa and his crew would then spent all pieces of the Aztec gold on drink, food, and pleasurable company.

Soon afterwards, the crew realized that they fell under the curse, suffering a living death in which they can't feel or taste anything, and when they step into the moonlight , their flesh vanish from their bones, and became walking skeletons.

After figuring out that it was the Aztec gold pieces that placed the curse upon them, Barbossa's crew returned to Isla de Muerta to find a way to lift the curse and end their punishment.

There, they found out that the curse could be reversed only when every last piece of the Aztec gold was returned to the stone chest from which it came.

It wasn't until Bootstrap Bill Turner was sent to the depths did the crew learned of an additional requirement: But a chance of hope lied on Turner's child , who had both his gold medallion and Turner blood in his veins.

Thus, Barbossa's crew set about, attempting to reclaim all pieces of the treasure. Jack Sparrow discovering that the curse is real.

Ten years had already passed since the cursed crew started their quest, having collected all but one of the gold pieces and had already given their blood to the gold.

However, the crew still needed the last coin as well as blood of their last crewmen, Bootstrap Bill Turner, who was lost to them, from his only child.

Having sensed the final coin, Barbossa's crew led an attack on Port Royal. It was during this attack that Jack Sparrow , who was locked up in the town's prison , learns that the curse was real once Koehler grabbed him through the prison bars.

As the moonlight falls on the pirates arm, Jack mutters "So there is a curse. And so the Black Pearl set a course for Isla de Muerta. The moonlight showing the true form of Barbossa 's crew.

While the Black Pearl sailed in the moonlit night, Barbossa had Elizabeth as his guest for a dinner in his cabin. It was here that Barbossa told Elizabeth the story of the curse, and how the crew fell upon it realizing that they were unable to feel and taste nothing.

Barbossa also told her that her blood was the last needed to lift the curse. After that, Elizabeth leapt up and attempted to run out of the cabin, having stabbed Barbossa with a knife from the table.

However, she was shocked to see that Barbossa was still alive and ran face-to-face with Barbossa's skeletal crew of the living dead. Barbossa explained the curse's effect on the crew, drinking wine as evidence.

Elizabeth then ran back into the cabin, where she remained for the remainder of the voyage, terrified of what she had seen.

Upon arriving to Isla de Muerta, Barbossa used Elizabeth to perform the blood ritual to lift the curse. However, although they performed the ritual, the entire crew didn't feel any different.

As a test, Barbossa shot Pintel with his pistol to see if the curse was lifted; but Pintel didn't die. Barbossa confronted Elizabeth, realizing that Elizabeth was not the child of Bootstrap Bill.

The crew then began to argue amongst themselves on their unsuccessful attempt to lift the curse until Barbossa realized that Elizabeth had taken the medallion and escaped to the Interceptor.

But with the help of their old, left for dead captain Jack Sparrow, the crew was able to catch up with the Interceptor and retrieved the medallion.

Entering the caves of Isla de Muerta, Barbossa once again aimed to lift their curse, this time with the intention of killing Will and using his blood in the ritual.

Barbossa and his crew prepared to perform the blood ritual once again, but was interrupted by Jack Sparrow, who warned Barbossa that the HMS Dauntless was offshore waiting for his crew.

Upon this revelation, Barbossa, despite his desire to lift the curse, listened to Jack's proposal and agreed to it.

And so Barbossa sent his crewmen for attack, save for three of his men. But to Jack's dismay, having planned on Barbossa's men using the longboats to attack the Dauntless crew, Barbossa ordered the crew to "take a walk".

So as the pirates were indestructible beings, they staged a surprise attack on the Dauntless by simply walking on the sea bed and climbed up from the ship's anchor to ambush the Dauntless crew.

Barbossa, Will, and Jack waited in the caves for the slaughter to end, until Jack tossed Will a sword.

With the tides turned, Will freed himself and fought Barbossa's men, while Jack and Barbossa pulled out their own swords and duel ensued. Jack and Barbossa fought a fierce battle around the treasure cave until Jack stabbed Barbossa, who then pulled the sword out and stabbed Jack with it.

However, once Jack stepped into the moonlight, he turned into a skeleton, revealing that he was cursed; having secretly palmed a piece of the Aztec gold.

Though they were both immortal , Jack and Barbossa continued their fight through the caves. Song and poetry were highly regarded; there were presentations and poetry contests at most of the Aztec festivals.

There were also dramatic presentations that included players, musicians and acrobats. There were several different genres of cuicatl song: Yaocuicatl was devoted to war and the god s of war, Teocuicatl to the gods and creation myths and to adoration of said figures, xochicuicatl to flowers a symbol of poetry itself and indicative of the highly metaphorical nature of a poetry that often utilized duality to convey multiple layers of meaning.

A key aspect of Aztec poetics was the use of parallelism, using a structure of embedded couplets to express different perspectives on the same element.

For example, the Nahuatl expression for "poetry" was in xochitl in cuicatl a dual term meaning "the flower, the song". A remarkable amount of this poetry survives, having been collected during the era of the conquest.

In some cases poetry is attributed to individual authors, such as Nezahualcoyotl , tlatoani of Texcoco, and Cuacuauhtzin , Lord of Tepechpan, but whether these attributions reflect actual authorship is a matter of opinion.

The Aztecs produced ceramics of different types. Common are orange wares, which are orange or buff burnished ceramics with no slip. Red wares are ceramics with a reddish slip.

Very common is "black on orange" ware which is orange ware decorated with painted designs in black. Aztec black on orange ceramics are chronologically classified into four phases: Aztec I is characterized by floral designs and day- name glyphs; Aztec II is characterized by a stylized grass design above calligraphic designs such as s-curves or scrolls; Aztec III is characterized by very simple line designs; Aztec four continues some pre-Columbian designs but adds European influenced floral designs.

There were local variations on each of these styles, and archeologists continue to refine the ceramic sequence.

Typical vessels for everyday use were clay griddles for cooking comalli , bowls and plates for eating caxitl , pots for cooking comitl molcajetes or mortar-type vessels with slashed bases for grinding chilli molcaxitl , and different kinds of braziers, tripod dishes and biconical goblets.

Vessels were fired in simple updraft kilns or even in open firing in pit kilns at low temperatures. Aztec painted art was produced on animal skin mostly deer , on cotton lienzos and on amate paper made from bark e.

The surface of the material was often first treated with gesso to make the images stand out more clearly. The art of painting and writing was known in Nahuatl by the metaphor in tlilli, in tlapalli - meaning "the black ink, the red pigment".

There are few extant Aztec painted books. Of these none are conclusively confirmed to have been created before the conquest, but several codices must have been painted either right before the conquest or very soon after - before traditions for producing them were much disturbed.

Even if some codices may have been produced after the conquest, there is good reason to think that they may have been copied from pre-Columbian originals by scribes.

The Codex Borbonicus is considered by some to be the only extant Aztec codex produced before the conquest - it is a calendric codex describing the day and month counts indicating the patron deities of the different time periods.

After the conquest, codices with calendric or religious information were sought out and systematically destroyed by the church - whereas other types of painted books, particularly historical narratives and tribute lists continued to be produced.

Sculptures were carved in stone and wood, but few wood carvings have survived. In Aztec artwork a number of monumental stone sculptures have been preserved, such sculptures usually functioned as adornments for religious architecture.

The Coyolxauhqui Stone representing the dismembered goddess Coyolxauhqui , found in , was at the foot of the staircase leading up to the Great Temple in Tenochtitlan.

The most well known examples of this type of sculpture are the Stone of Tizoc and the Stone of Motecuzoma I , both carved with images of warfare and conquest by specific Aztec rulers.

Many smaller stone sculptures depicting deities also exist. The style used in religious sculpture was rigid stances likely meant to create a powerful experience in the onlooker.

An especially prized art form among the Aztecs was featherwork - the creation of intricate and colorful mosaics of feathers, and their use in garments as well as decoration on weaponry, war banners, and warrior suits.

The class of highly skilled and honored craftsmen who created feather objects was called the amanteca , [] named after the Amantla neighborhood in Tenochtitlan where they lived and worked.

The Florentine Codex gives information about how feather works were created. The amanteca had two ways of creating their works. One was to secure the feathers in place using agave cord for three-dimensional objects such as fly whisks, fans, bracelets, headgear and other objects.

The second and more difficult was a mosaic type technique, which the Spanish also called "feather painting.

Feather mosaics were arrangements of minute fragments of feathers from a wide variety of birds, generally worked on a paper base, made from cotton and paste, then itself backed with amate paper, but bases of other types of paper and directly on amate were done as well.

These works were done in layers with "common" feathers, dyed feathers and precious feathers. First a model was made with lower quality feathers and the precious feathers found only on the top layer.

The adhesive for the feathers in the Mesoamerican period was made from orchid bulbs. Feathers from local and faraway sources were used, especially in the Aztec Empire.

The feathers were obtained from wild birds as well as from domesticated turkeys and ducks, with the finest quetzal feathers coming from Chiapas, Guatemala and Honduras.

These feathers were obtained through trade and tribute. Due to the difficulty of conserving feathers, fewer than ten pieces of original Aztec featherwork exist today.

Mexico City was built on the ruins of Tenochtitlan, gradually replacing and covering the lake, the island and the architecture of Aztec Tenochtitlan.

This meant that aspects of Aztec culture and the Nahuatl language continued to expand during the early colonial period as Aztec auxiliary forces made permanent settlements in many of the areas that were put under the Spanish crown.

The Aztec ruling dynasty continued to govern the indigenous polity of San Juan Tenochtitlan, a division of the Spanish capital of Mexico City, but the subsequent indigenous rulers were mostly puppets installed by the Spanish.

Other former Aztec city states likewise were established as colonial indigenous towns, governed by a local indigenous gobernador.

This office was often initially held by the hereditary indigenous ruling line, with the gobernador being the tlatoani , but the two positions in many Nahua towns became separated over time.

Indigenous governors were in charge of the colonial political organization of the Indians. In particular they enabled the continued functioning of the tribute and obligatory labor of commoner Indians to benefit the Spanish holders of encomiendas.

Encomiendas were private grants of labor and tribute from particular indigenous communities to particular Spaniards, replacing the Aztec overlords with Spanish.

In the early colonial period some indigenous governors became quite rich and influential and were able to maintain positions of power comparable to that of Spanish encomenderos.

After the arrival of the Europeans in Mexico and the conquest, indigenous populations declined significantly. This was largely the result of the epidemics of viruses brought to the continent against which the natives had no immunity.

In —, an outbreak of smallpox swept through the population of Tenochtitlan and was decisive in the fall of the city ; further significant epidemics struck in and There has been no general consensus about the population size of Mexico at the time of European arrival.

Early estimates gave very small population figures for the Valley of Mexico, in Kubler estimated a figure , Their very high figure has been highly criticized for relying un unwarranted assumptions.

Although the Aztec empire fell, some of its highest elites continued to hold elite status in the colonial era. The principal heirs of Moctezuma II and their descendants retained high status.

His son Pedro Moctezuma produced a son, who married into Spanish aristocracy and a further generation saw the creation of the title, Count of Moctezuma.

From to , the Viceroy of Mexico was held the title of count of Moctezuma. In , the holder of the title became a Grandee of Spain. The different Nahua peoples, just as other Mesoamerican indigenous peoples in colonial New Spain, were able to maintain many aspects of their social and political structure under the colonial rule.

The Spanish recognized the indigenous elites as nobles in the Spanish colonial system, maintaining the status distinction of the pre-conquest era, and used these noblemen as intermediaries between the Spanish colonial government and their communities.

This was contingent on their conversion to Christianity and continuing loyalty to the Spanish crown. Colonial Nahua polities had considerable autonomy to regulate their local affairs.

The Spanish rulers did not entirely understand the indigenous political organization, but they recognized the importance of the existing system and their elite rulers.

They reshaped the political system utilizing altepetl or city-states as the basic unit of governance.

In the colonial era, altepetl were renamed cabeceras or "head towns" although they often retained the term altepetl in local-level, Nahuatl-language documentation , with outlying settlements governed by the cabeceras named sujetos , subject communities.

In cabeceras , the Spanish created Iberian-style town councils, or cabildos , which usually continued to function as the elite ruling group had in the pre-conquest era.

Indigenous populations living in sparsely populated areas were resettled to form new communities, making it easier for them to brought within range of evangelization efforts, and easier for the colonial state to exploit their labor.

Today the legacy of the Aztecs lives on in Mexico in many forms. Archeological sites are excavated and opened to the public and their artifacts are prominently displayed in museums.

Place names and loanwords from the Aztec language Nahuatl permeate the Mexican landscape and vocabulary, and Aztec symbols and mythology have been promoted by the Mexican government and integrated into contemporary Mexican nationalism as emblems of the country.

During the 19th century, the image of the Aztecs as uncivilized barbarians was replaced with romanticized visions of the Aztecs as original sons of the soil, with a highly developed culture rivaling the ancient European civilizations.

When Mexico became independent from Spain, a romanticized version of the Aztecs became a source of images that could be used to ground the new nation as a unique blend of European and American.

Aztec culture and history has been central to the formation of a Mexican national identity after Mexican independence in In 17th and 18th century Europe, the Aztecs were generally described as barbaric, gruesome and culturally inferior.

This search became the basis for what historian D. Brading calls "creole patriotism. Unearthed were unearthed the famous calendar stone, as well as a stature of Coatlicue.

A decade later, German scientist Alexander von Humboldt spent a year in Mexico, during his epic four-year expedition to Spanish America.

One of his early publications from that period was Views of the Cordilleras and Monuments of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas.

In the realm of religion, late colonial paintings of the Virgin of Guadalupe have examples of her depicted floating above the iconic nopal cactus of the Aztecs.

When New Spain achieved independence in and became a monarchy, the First Mexican Empire , its flag had the traditional Aztec eagle on a nopal cactus.

The eagle had a crown, symbolizing the new Mexican monarchy. When Mexico became a republic after the overthrow of the first monarchy in , the flag was revised showing the eagle with no crown.

In the s, when the French established the Second Mexican Empire under Maximilian Hapsburg , the Mexican flag retained the emblematic eagle and cactus, with elaborate symbols of monarchy.

After the defeat of the French and their Mexican collaborators, the Mexican Republic was re-established, and the flag returned to its republican simplicity.

Tensions within post-independence Mexico pitted those rejecting the ancient civilizations of Mexico as source of national pride, the Hispanistas , mostly politically conservative Mexican elites, and those who saw them as a source of pride, the Indigenistas , who were mostly liberal Mexican elites.

Although the flag of the Mexican Republic had the symbol of the Aztecs as its central element, conservative elites were generally hostile to the current indigenous populations of Mexico or crediting them with a glorious prehispanic history.

Liberals were more favorably inclined to the indigenous populations and their history, but considered a pressing matter being the "Indian Problem.

The late nineteenth century in Mexico was a period in which Aztec civilization became a point of national pride. Mexican scholars such as Alfredo Chavero helped shape the cultural image of Mexico at these exhibitions.

In their works, Mexican authors such as Octavio Paz and Agustin Fuentes have analyzed the use Aztec symbols by the modern Mexican state, critiquing the way it adopts and adapts indigenous culture to political ends, yet they have also in their works made use of the symbolic idiom themselves.

Paz for example critiqued the architectural layout of the National Museum of Anthropology , which constructs a view of Mexican history as culminating with the Aztecs, as an expression of a nationalist appropriation of Aztec culture.

Scholars in Europe and the United States increasingly pursued investigations into Mexico's ancient civilizations, starting in the nineteenth century.

Humboldt had been extremely important bringing ancient Mexico into broader scholarly discussions of ancient civilizations.

It was Humboldt…who woke us from our sleep. Although not directly connected with the Aztecs, it contributed to the increased interest in ancient Mexican studies in Europe.

English aristocrat Lord Kingsborough spent considerable energy in their pursuit of understanding of ancient Mexico. He was not directly interested in the Aztecs, but rather in proving that Mexico had been colonized by Jews.

However, his publication of these valuable primary sources gave others access to them. In the United States in the early nineteenth century, interest in ancient Mexico propelled John Lloyd Stephens to travel to Mexico and then publish well-illustrated accounts in the early s.

But the research of a half-blind Bostonian, William Hickling Prescott , into the Spanish conquest of Mexico resulted in his highly popular and deeply researched The Conquest of Mexico His resulting work was a mixture of pro- and anti-Aztec attitudes.

One entire work was devoted to ancient Mexico, half of which concerned the Aztecs. It was a work of synthesis drawing on Ixtlilxochitl and Brasseur de Bourbourg, among others.

When the International Congress of Americanists was formed in Nancy, France in , Mexican scholars became active participants, and Mexico City has hosted the biennial multidisciplinary meeting six times, starting in Mexico's ancient civilizations have continued to be the focus of major scholarly investigations by Mexican and international scholars.

The Nahuatl language is today spoken by 1. Mexican Spanish today incorporates hundreds of loans from Nahuatl, and many of these words have passed into general Spanish use, and further into other world languages.

In Mexico, Aztec place names are ubiquitous, particularly in central Mexico where the Aztec empire was centered, but also in other regions where many towns, cities and regions were established under their Nahuatl names, as Aztec auxiliary troops accompanied the Spanish colonizers on the early expeditions that mapped New Spain.

In this way even towns, that were not originally Nahuatl speaking came to be known by their Nahuatl names.

Mexican cuisine continues to be based on staple elements of Mesoamerican cooking and, particularly, of Aztec cuisine: Many of these staple products continue to be known by their Nahuatl names, carrying in this way ties to the Aztec people who introduced these foods to the Spaniards and to the world.

Through spread of ancient Mesoamerican food elements, particularly plants, Nahuatl loan words chocolate , tomato , chili , avocado , tamale , taco , pupusa , chipotle , pozole , atole have been borrowed through Spanish into other languages around the world.

Today Aztec images and Nahuatl words are often used to lend an air of authenticity or exoticism in the marketing of Mexican cuisine. The idea of the Aztecs has captivated the imaginations of Europeans since the first encounters, and has provided many iconic symbols to Western popular culture.

The Aztecs and figures from Aztec mythology feature in Western culture. Knopf , insisted on a change of title.

Aztec society has also been depicted in cinema. La Otra Conquista from was directed by Salvador Carrasco , and illustrated the colonial aftermath of the s Spanish Conquest of Mexico.

It adopted the perspective of an Aztec scribe, Topiltzin, who survived the attack on the temple of Tenochtitlan. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Aztec disambiguation. History of the Aztecs. Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire. Class in Aztec society , Aztec society , and Aztec slavery.

Women in Aztec civilization. List of Aztec gods and supernatural beings. Human sacrifice in Aztec culture and Cannibalism in pre-Columbian America.

An Aztec bowl for everyday use. Black on orange ware, a simple Aztec IV style flower design. An Aztec polychrome vessel typical of the Cholula region.

A life-size ceramic sculpture of an Aztec eagle warrior. Population history of American indigenous peoples. Aztecs in Mexican culture. Aztec cuisine and List of Mexican dishes.

Mesoamerica portal Indigenous peoples of the Americas portal. I believe it makes more sense to expand the definition of "Aztec" to include the peoples of nearby highland valleys in addition to the inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico.

The latter term has several decisive disadvantages: Readers will find some variation in the terms authors employ in this handbook, but, in general, different authors use Aztecs to refer to people incorporated into the empire of the Triple Alliance in the Late Postclassic period.

An empire of such broad geographic extent [ Scholars often use more specific identifiers, such as Mexica or Tenochca, when appropriate, and they generally employ the term Nahuas to refer to indigenous people in central Mexico [ All of these terms introduce their own problems, whether because they are vague, subsume too much variation, are imposed labels, or are problematic for some other reason.

We have not found a solution that all can agree on and thus accept the varied viewpoints of authors. We use the term Aztec because today it is widely recognized by both scholars and the international public.

In English the variant "Montezuma" was originally the most common, but has now largely been replaced with "motecuhzoma" and "moteuczoma", in Spanish the term "moctezuma" which inverts the order of t and k has been predominant and is a common surname in Mexico, but is now also largely replaced with a form that respects the original Nahuatl structure, such as "motecuzoma".

Indeed no conquests are recorded for Motecuzoma in the last years of his reign, suggesting that he may have been incapable of ruling, or even dead Diel Archived from the original on The New York Times.

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University of Texas Press. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association. The Pursuit of Ruins: Archaeology, History, and the Making of Modern Mexico.

University of New Mexico Press. Indian women of early Mexico. Evidence from dialectal vocabularies". The Historical Linguistics of Native America.

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Humboldt, Alexander von University of Chicago Press. Nahua versus Spanish and mestizo accounts in the Valley of Mexico". Journal of anthropological research.

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The Aztec image in Western thought. Hispanic American Historical Review. Fifteen Poets of the Aztec World. Bernardino de Sahagun, First Anthropologist.

Estudios de la cultura nahuatl. The Nahuas After the Conquest: Nahuatl Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico. Translated by Lockhart, James.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Culture. Translated by Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano; Thelma Ortiz de Montellano. University Press of Colorado.

The Offerings of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. Matos Moctezuma, Eduardo The Great Temple of the Aztecs: New Aspects of Antiquity series. In Hill Boone, Elizabeth.

The Aztec Templo Mayor. In Search of the Mexica Past". Indigenous Allies in the Conquest of Mesoamerica. Journal of Interdisciplinary History.

Miller, Mary ; Taube, Karl An Illustrated Dictionary of Mesoamerican Religion. Montes de Oca, Mercedes Reflections of a Society, , 3d ed.

In Elizabeth Hill Boone. A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, 10th to 11th October, Iconographic and Chronologic Analysis". Studies in Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology.

Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University. The Oxford Handbook of The Aztecs. Oxford University Press Nowotny, Karl Anton Translated by George A.

Evertt and Edward B. Law and Politics in Aztec Texcoco. Aztec Medicine, Health, and Nutrition. Peterson, Jeanette Favrot A global history of Mexican food.

Bricker ; Patricia A. Colonial Latin American Review. Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest 1st pbk ed. Oxford and New York: The Native Population of the Americas in revised ed.

University of Wisconsin Press. Handbook of Middle American Indians. Chimalpahin and the Kingdoms of Chalco. American Society for Ethnohistory.

In Mogens Herman Hansen. The Aztecs first ed. University Press of Florida. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. Aztec and Maya Myths 4th University of Texas ed.

Gods and Mythic Origins in Ancient Mesoamerica". The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology. Mexico at the World's Fairs.

Journal of the American Musicological Society. The Aztecs 3rd, revised ed. A typological analysis of Aztec placenames". Journal of Archaeological Science: Göttinger Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft.

Disease and Death in Early Colonial Mexico: Comments on Wingspan Estimations and Diversity". The Fabulous Life of Diego Rivera.

Zantwijk, Rudolph van University of California Press, Berkeley. Translated by Anthony Pagden. Yale University Press, New Haven.

The Conquest of New Spain. Fernando Horcasitas; Doris Heyden , eds. Translated by Fernando Horcasitas; Doris Heyden. The History of the Indies of New Spain.

Civilization of the American Indian series, no. Richard Andrews and Ross Hassig original reproduction and translation of: General History of the Things of New Spain , 13 vols.

Dibble and Arthur J. Civilization of the American Indians series. Nicholson , Arthur J. Anderson , Charles E. Translated by Doris Heyden. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Anderson ; Susan Schroeder, eds. Translated by Arthur J. Anderson ; Susan Schroeder. Susan Schroeder general editor , Wayne Ruwet manuscript editor.

Translated by Benjamin Keen.

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